# Real Analog: Circuits 1

“Real Analog: Circuits 1” is a comprehensive collection of free educational materials that seamlessly blend hands-on design projects with theoretical concepts and circuit analysis techniques. Developed for university “Circuits” classes by practicing engineers and experienced educators, Real Analog: Circuits 1 is centered on a 12-chapter textbook and features:

• A 12 chapter textbook called Real Analog
• Exercises designed to reinforce textbook and lecture topics
• Homework assignments for every chapter
• Multiple design projects that reinforce and extend theoretical concepts
• Worksheets and videos to help students complete design projects outside of the lab.

Note: The textbook can be downloaded as a PDF from the link at the bottom of the page, accessed online via the individual chapters below, or a hard copy can now be purchased on Amazon!

Design projects use Digilent's Analog Discovery 2 and Analog Parts Kit that together include everything needed to build and test a wide variety of analog circuits - the Analog Discovery includes a dual-channel oscilloscope, waveform generator, power supplies, digital I/O channels and more, and the Analog Parts Kit includes a breadboard, jumper wires, more than 20 integrated circuits from Analog Devices, and a wide variety of sensors, resistors, capacitors, discrete semiconductors, and other components.

Real Analog: Circuits 1, the Analog Discovery 2, and Analog Parts Kit form the core of a world-class engineering educational program that can be used by themselves or in support of existing curricular materials. Students with their own design kits learn more, learn faster, retain information longer, and have a more enjoyable experience - now every student can take charge of their education for less than the cost of a traditional engineering textbook!

Chapter 1: Circuit Fundamentals
In this chapter, we introduce all fundamental concepts associated with circuit analysis. Electrical circuits are constructed in order to direct the flow of electrons to perform a specific task. In other words, in circuit analysis and design, we are concerned with transferring electrical energy in order to accomplish a desired objective.
Chapter 2: Circuit Reduction
In this chapter, we introduce analysis methods based on circuit reduction. Circuit reduction consists of combining resistances in a circuit to a smaller number of resistors, which are (in some sense) equivalent to the original resistive network. Reducing the number of resistors, of course, reduces the number of unknowns in a circuit.
Chapter 3: Nodal and Mesh Analysis
In cases where circuit reduction is not feasible, approaches are still available to reduce the total number of unknowns in the system. Nodal analysis and mesh analysis are two of these.
Chapter 4: Systems and Network Theorems
In this chapter, we introduce the concept of a systems level approach to circuit analysis. In this type of approach, we represent the circuit as a system with some inputs and outputs. We then characterize the system by the mathematical relationship between the system inputs and the system outputs. This relationship is called the input-output relation for the system.
Chapter 5: Operational Amplifiers
Operational amplifiers (commonly abbreviated as op-amps) are extremely useful electronic devices. Some argue, in fact, that operational amplifiers are the single most useful integrated circuit in analog circuit design. Operational amplifier-based circuits are commonly used for signal conditioning, performing mathematical operations, and buffering.
Chapter 6: Energy Storage Elements
This chapter begins with an overview of the basic concepts associated with energy storage. This discussion focuses not on electrical systems, but instead introduces the topic qualitatively in the context of systems with which the reader is already familiar. The goal is to provide a basis for the mathematics, which will be introduced subsequently.
Chapter 7: First Order Circuits
First order systems are, by definition, systems whose input-output relationship is a first order differential equation. A first order differential equation contains a first order derivative but no derivative higher than first order - the order of a differential equation is the order of the highest order derivative present in the equation.
Chapter 8: Second Order Circuits
Second order systems are, by definition, systems whose input-output relationship is a second order differential equation. A second order differential equation contains a second order derivative but no derivative higher than second order.
Chapter 9: Introduction to State Variable Models
In this chapter, we will provide a very brief introduction to the topic of state variable modeling. The brief presentation provided here is intended simply to introduce the reader to the basic concepts of state variable models, since they are a natural - and relatively painless - extension of the analysis approach we have used in Chapters 7 and 8.