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learn:instrumentation:tutorials:analog-discovery-studio-impedance-analyzer [2019/11/20 00:00]
Arthur Brown
learn:instrumentation:tutorials:analog-discovery-studio-impedance-analyzer [2020/07/28 17:25] (current)
Arthur Brown
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-======Using the Impedance Analyzer======+======Using the Impedance Analyzer(Page has Moved) ​======
  
-{{:​reference:​instrumentation:​analog-discovery-studio:​hardware-reference-manual:​impedance-analyzer-screen-shot.png?​nolink&​800}} +<WRAP round important 660px> 
- +This guide has been replaced by [[learn/instrumentation/tutorials/waveforms-impedance-analyzer/​start]], and is slated ​to be removed from the Digilent WikiPlease update all bookmarks ​and saved links to the new location.
-===== Introduction ===== +
-This guide explains the use of the //Impedance// instrument in WaveForms. This instrument is used to analyze a circuit-under-test's response to input signals of differing frequencies. +
----- +
-===== Prerequisites ===== +
-  * A Digilent Test & Measurement Device with Analog Inputs and Outputs +
-  * A Computer with WaveForms Software Installed +
- +
-----  +
-===== Guide ===== +
-==== 1. Opening the Impedance Analyzer==== +
- +
-<WRAP group> +
-<WRAP column half> +
-=== 1.1 === +
-Plug in the Test & Measurement Devicethen start WaveForms ​and make sure the device ​is connected. +
- +
-If no device is connected ​to the host computer when WaveForms launches, the **Device Manager** will be launchedMake sure that the device is plugged in and turned on, at which point it will appear in the Device Manager'​s device list (1). Click on the device in the list to select it, then click the Select button (2) to close the Device Manager. +
- +
-**Note:** //"​DEMO"​ devices are also listed, which allow the user to use WaveForms and create projects without a physical device.// +
- +
-**Note:** //The Device Manager can be opened by clicking on the "​Connected Device"​ button in the bottom right corner of the screen (3), or by selecting "​Device Manager"​ from the "​Settings"​ menu at the top of the screen.//+
 </​WRAP>​ </​WRAP>​
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​analog-discovery-studio-oscilloscope:​waveforms-device-manager.png?​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
----- 
-<WRAP group><​WRAP column half> 
-=== 1.2 === 
-Once the Welcome page loads, in the instrument panel at the left side of the window, click on the "​Impedance"​ button to open the //​Impedance//​ instrument. 
-</​WRAP><​WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_welcome.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-=== 1.3 === 
-Once the //​Impedance//​ instrument opens, the window contains the Control Bar (1) at the top with the Impedance plot plane (2) below that and the Phase plot plane (3) at the bottom as seen in the picture to the right. ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_default.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
- 
----- 
-==== 2. Using the Impedance Analyzer==== 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-An Impedance Analyzer is used to analyze capacitive and inductive elements. This section walks through setting up the //​Impedance//​ tool to capture the impedance and phase of a common capacitor over a default frequency range. It uses the //Wavegen// and //Scope// instruments in addition to an external reference resistor whose value is determined from a table in relation to the range of capacitance or inductance of the device under test (DUT). This table is presented to the right. When the //​Impedance//​ instrument is started, the //Scope// and //Wavegen// are stopped if they were running and their status shows "​Busy"​. The //​Impedance//​ instrument takes control over these instruments while running. 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impanalyzer_refresistor.png?​direct&​400 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===2.1 Hardware Setup=== 
-In this tutorial, the impedance of a 10nF capacitor is measured. Referring to the previous table, a 10kOhm reference resistor is required for this value of capacitance. Refer to the "Load First" diagram to the right for how to set up this circuit (the capacitor is the load and the reference resistor is the resistor in the diagram.) ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_loadfirst.png?​direct&​400 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-An example of this setup is shown in the picture to the right: 
-  * Capacitor and reference resistor connected in series 
-  * //Scope// Channel 1 (solid orange wire) and //Wavegen// Channel 1 (solid yellow wire) connected to the free end of the capacitor 
-  * //Scope// Channel 2 (solid blue wire) connected to the node shared by the capacitor and the reference resistor 
-  * Ground (black wire) connected to the free end of the reference resistor  ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_example.jpg?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===2.2 Software Setup=== 
-All software parameters will be left as default like in Section 1 with the exception of changing the reference resistor value. On the Control Bar, select the **Resistor** drop-down menu and click on //10kOhm// as shown in the picture to the right. 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_softw.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===2.3 Run Impedance Analyzer=== 
-To start collecting data, navigate to the left of the Control Bar and click the "​Single"​ button as shown in the picture to the right. ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_single.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-The impedance and phase of the capacitor as a function of frequency is now plotted in the plot plane as shown in the picture to the right. ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_data.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
-==== 3. Impedance Analyzer User Interface Overview==== 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-//This section walks through the various tools and configurations for the //Impedance Analyzer. 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===3.1 Meter/​Analyzer Mode Toggle Bar=== 
-The Meter/​Analyzer toggle bar is located above the Control Bar and below the File drop-down menu as seen in the picture to the right. Selecting "​Meter"​ will hide all Analyzer plot planes a display a table of measured values associated with the DUT at a given frequency. Selecting "​Analyzer"​ allows the user to generate various plots for the DUT. These modes are discussed in further detail in the subsequent sections, respectively. ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_meteranbar.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.1.1 Meter Mode== 
-Selecting //Meter// from the Meter/​Analyzer Toggle Bar (as shown with the red arrow in the picture to the right) does the following: 
-  * Hides the plot planes from Analyzer Mode 
-  * Displays a table of values associated with the DUT 
-  * Adds a new toolbar (shown in the red rectangle in the picture to the right) 
-The new toolbar provides the following features: 
-  * //​Element//:​ Determine (Auto) or select the type of circuit element the DUT is or models (Inductance,​ Capacitance,​ or Resistance) 
-  * //Model//: Select whether DUT models a Parallel or Series connection ​ 
-  * //Custom//: Check this box to customize the values in the table 
-  * //Edit//: Click on this button to open a new window for choosing which measured values are to be displayed in the Meter table 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_meter.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.1.2 Analyzer Mode== 
-Selecting //​Analyzer//​ from the Meter/​Analyzer Toggle Bar (as shown with the red arrow in the picture to the right) provides the user with an array of plots that can be generated with each acquisition and is the //​Impedance//​ tool's default mode. Each plot has its own selection of parameters that can be displayed or removed from the plot plane and are found in the upper left corner of each plot (1). Each plot also has additional manual range and scale options found in the top right corner (2). Additional traces may be added from the traces menu (3) located to the right of the plot plane, and data cursors (4) can be generated by clicking the X in the bottom left corner of a plot. The plots available to the user and the parameters that can be displayed on that plot are listed below: ​ 
-  * //Input//: Gain Magnitude 
-  * //Phase//: Phase, Input Phase 
-  * //​Voltage//:​ RMS, Real, Imaginary 
-  * //​Current//:​ RMS, Real, Imaginary 
-  * //​Impedance//:​ Impedance Magnitude, Series Resistance, Series Reactance, Parallel Resistance, Parallel Reactance 
-  * //​Admittance//:​ Admittance Magnitude, Parallel Conductance,​ Parallel Susceptance,​ Series Conductance,​ Series Susceptance  ​ 
-  * //​Inductance//:​ Series Inductance, Parallel Inductance 
-  * //​Capacitance//:​ Series Capacitance,​ Parallel Capacitance 
-  * //Factor//: D and Q plots 
-  * //​Nyquist//:​ Gain and phase of acquisition in angular plot 
-  * //​Custom1//:​ Custom parameters as programmed by the user 
-  * //​Custom2//:​ Custom parameters as programmed by the user 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_analyzer.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===3.2 Control Bar=== 
-Located above the plot planes is the Control Bar (as shown in Section 1.3) where the //​Impedance//​ tool can be further configured. The elements of the Control Bar are explained in the following subsections as they are seen from left to right in the Control Bar. 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_contbar.png?​direct&​600 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.2.1 Acquisition Buttons== 
-The "​Single"​ and "​Run"​ acquisition buttons will perform either a single acquisition or continuous acquisition on the DUT, respectively. ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​sing_run.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.2.2 Start/Stop Frequency == 
-The **Start** and **Stop** drop-down menus correspond to the start and stop frequency of the acquisition,​ respectively. These values can be changed by clicking on the drop-down menu arrow, scrolling to the desired frequency, and selecting it or by typing the desired frequency manually into the text field. ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_freq_startstop.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.2.3 Samples and Samples/​Decade == 
-The **Samples** and **/Decade** drop-down menus correspond to the number of samples per acquisition and the division of those samples per decade on the plot plane, respectively. These values can be changed by clicking on the drop-down menu arrow, scrolling to the desired frequency, and selecting it or by typing the desired value manually into the text field. 
- 
-**Note:** //Changing one of these fields will update the other accordingly.// ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_sampdec.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.2.4 DUT and Reference Resistor Topology Arrangement== 
-This drop-down menu allow the user to select the appropriate topology for the DUT and reference resistor. There are four choices available, each are described below with reference diagrams to the right. ​ 
- 
-**Note:** //The "​Nodes"​ that are referenced in the following diagrams are the diamond shape connection points and are numbered such that they are increasing from left to right.// 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_topology.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-**W1-C1-DUT-C2-R-GND**:​ //This is used when the DUT is normally loaded at the output.// 
-  * //Node 1//: Wavegen Channel 1, Scope Channel 1+, and the DUT input 
-  * //Node 2//: Scope Channel 2+, DUT output, and the reference resistor 
-  * //Node 3//: Reference resistor and ground 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_dutfirst.png?​direct&​400 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-**W1-C1-R-C2-DUT-GND**:​ //This is used when the DUT is normally grounded at the output.// 
-  * //Node 1//: Wavegen Channel 1, Scope Channel 1+, and the reference resistor 
-  * //Node 2//: Scope Channel 2+, reference resistor, and the DUT input 
-  * //Node 3//: DUT output and ground 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_resfirst.png?​direct&​400 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-**W1-C1P-DUT-C1N-C2-R-GND**:​ //This variation of the first topology provides differential measurements across both the DUT and reference resistor. This is used when the DUT is normally loaded at the output.// 
-  * //Node 1//: Wavegen Channel 1, Scope Channel 1+, and the DUT input 
-  * //Node 2//: Scope Channel 1-, Scope Channel 2+, DUT output, and the reference resistor 
-  * //Node 3//: Reference resistor and ground 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_dutfirst_alt.png?​direct&​400 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.2.5 Amplitude and Offset== 
-These drop-down menus allow the user to control the amplitude of the Wavgen input and the option to apply a DC offset voltage, respectively. These values can be changed by clicking on the drop-down menu arrow, scrolling to the desired frequency, and selecting it or by typing the desired voltage manually into the text field. ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_ampoffset.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.2.6 Reference Resistor and Averaging == 
-The **Resistor** drop-down menu indicates the external reference resistor so Waveforms can correctly compute the current through the DUT. This value must be chosen in relation to the capacitance or inductance of the DUT. Refer to the table to the right to determine which reference resistor should be used for each range of capacitance or inductance. The **Averaging** drop-down menu selects a time window in which acquired data will be averaged before plotting. To change either of these parameters, click on the drop down arrow, scroll to the desired value and select it or manually type in the desired value in the text field. ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_refresavg.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.2.7 Options ==  
-The **Options** drop-down menu provides the user with the following configuration parameters for the //​Impedance//​ tool: 
-  * //Scale//: Logarithmic or Linear ​ 
-  * //​Average//:​ Averages the plotted data over the chosen number of samples ​ 
-  * //​ProbeRes//:​ Accommodates for different oscilloscope probe resistances ​ 
-  * //​ProbCap//:​ Accommodates for different oscilloscope probe capacitances ​ 
-  * //​Wavegen//:​ Selects Wavegen Channel 1 or Wavegen Channel 2 as signal source 
-  * //​Amplification//:​ Attenuates or amplifies acquired data by factors of 10 
-  * //Settle//: Characterizes the time window between sampled data 
-  * //Min Periods//: Characterizes the minimum number of sampling periods by powers of 2 
-  * //​Warnings//:​ Choose whether to display warnings like "​Resistor too low" or not 
-Scope Channel 1 and Channel 2 Options: 
-  * //Offset//: Apply DC offset to a Scope channel 
-  * //Range//: Set range for Scope by input signal amplitude or a set voltage 
-  * //​Attenuation//:​ Attenuate or amplify Scope data 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_options.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-==3.2.8 Compensation== ​ 
-//​Compensation helps calibrate the //​Impedance//​ tool. This becomes more useful when working with higher frequencies,​ using higher reference resistor values, and detecting smaller capacitances and inductances.//​ 
- 
- ​**Image A** shows the Compensation tools icon selected, which allows the user to enable and perform open and short circuit compensation. **Image B** shows the Compensation configuration window shown when "​Compensation"​ is clicked. This window provides some parameters found on the Control Bar as well as buttons for open/short compensation for multiple reference resistor options. ​ 
- 
-These reference resistor values can also be changed in this window and reflected in the Control Bar's **Resistor** drop-down menu. This is useful when the reference resistor value is not exactly it's marked value. When compensation is performed, values are stored for each reference resistor value over the specified frequency range. If the resistor values or frequency range changes, this compensation must be performed again. ​ 
- 
-**Performing Compensation**:​ //First, measure the reference resistors actual value with a precise multimeter and enter that value into the Compensation window text field under "​Resistor"​. To perform Open Compensation,​ disconnect the DUT terminals from the impedance analysis topology, leaving the DUT an open circuit. To perform Short Compensation,​ short the DUT terminals while remaining in the impedance analysis topology chosen.// ​ 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-**A** {{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_comp_quick.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-**B** {{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_comp.png?​direct&​400 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===3.3 File Menu=== 
-The File drop down menu has these options available to the user: 
-  * //New Impedance//:​ Create new //​Impedance//​ window (Empty) or copy the current //​Impedance//​ tool and it's settings into a new window (Clone) 
-  * //Open Project//: Open a previously saved Waveforms workspace 
-  * //Save Project//: Save the current Waveforms workspace 
-  * //Export//: Export plotted/​acquired data and/or images of the plot planes 
-  * //Close Impedance//:​ Close the current //​Impedance//​ tool window 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_file.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===3.4 Control Menu=== 
-The Control menu contains the acquisition controls for the user that are also available in the Control Bar: 
-  * //Single//: Run a single acquisition of the Impedance tool 
-  * //Run//: Run a repeating acquisition of the Impedance tool 
-  * //Stop//: Stop acquisition 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_controlmenu.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===3.5 View Menu=== 
-The View menu provides the same plot/window toggling options discussed in Section 3.1.2 (Analyzer Mode) but with two additional window options: 
-  * //Time//: shows a time domain plot of the DUT 
-  * //Notes//: A text editor pane for user notes when using the //​Impedance//​ tool 
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_viewmenu.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-<WRAP group> 
-<WRAP column half> 
-===3.6 Window Menu=== 
-The Window menu provides three main options to the user: 
-  * //Help//: A link to the WaveForms help menu 
-  * //​Waveforms//:​ A link to the WaveForms Welcome window 
-  * Links to other Waveforms tools that are currently open  
-</​WRAP>​ 
-<WRAP column half> 
-{{ :​learn:​instrumentation:​tutorials:​impan_window.png?​direct&​200 |}} 
-</​WRAP></​WRAP>​ 
----- 
- 
-==== Next Steps ==== 
- 
-/* 
-If voltage values seen in the //​Voltmeter//​ are significantly different from the expected voltage output of the //​Supplies//,​ please calibrate the device by following the **Calibration Guide**. FIXME link 
-*/ 
- 
-For more guides on how to use the Digilent Test & Measurement Device, return to the device'​s Resource Center, linked from [[reference:​instrumentation:​start|Instrumentation]] page of this wiki. 
- 
-For more information on WaveForms visit the [[reference:​software:​waveforms:​waveforms-3:​reference-manual|WaveForms Reference Manual]]. ​ 
- 
-For technical support, please visit the [[https://​forum.digilentinc.com/​forum/​8-scopes-instruments/​|Scopes and Instruments]] section of the Digilent Forums. 
- 
  
-{{tag>tutorial analog-discovery-studio}}+{{tag>to-be-removed}}